Sunday, November 27, 2011

What’s in a name?


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Draupati Bastra Haran
The name of Ram’s stepmother who sent him to the forest is pretty well known. But not many people know that Kaikeyi is not this woman’s name at all. The word Kaikeyi is a generic adjective meaning that she came from the kingdom of Kekaya (speculated to be Caucasus Mountains). In fact, this name is so generic that several women in Hindu mythology are called Kaikeyi. In the Mahabharata, Queen Sudeshna of Viratnagar (where the Pandavas spent their Guptavas), is often referred to as Kaikeyi. Ram’s stepmother just happens to be the most famous of all the Kaikeyis. Throughout the Ramayan, she is called with this reverse eponym and not once are we told her real name.
Why did this happen? Why was the name of a major character forgotten and not recorded in the story? A closer look at names of other mythical characters informed me that this was not a coincidence, but was part of an overarching trend of gender bias in myths. Gender bias in our myths is a foregone conclusion, but the etymology of names gives a fascinating view into the vast reaches of gender bias.
Our myths contain hordes and hordes of such forgotten women like Kaikeyi , who are named simply after the kingdom they come from.  Ram’s mother Kaushalya, for example, is so called because she is from the kingdom of Koshal. In Mahabharata, the mothers of Dhritarashtra and Pandu are often addressed as Koshalya because they are from Kashi. They are lucky, because their given names Ambika and Ambalika, are also mentioned in the epic. In contrast, Gandhari, who comes from Gandhar (a West Asian kingdom in modern day Afghanistan), is not fortunate enough to have her name recorded. Similar is the fate of Madri, coming from Madrades (modern day Madras, as is not difficult to decipher.) We do not know Madri’s real name. Kunti is the luckier wife here, because her given name Pritha is mentioned quite a few times. The name Kunti comes from the name of her adoptive father, Kuntibhoj, and so is not her own name. The same fate also encounters the next generation, where Draupadi is called after her father Drupad. She is also often called Panchali after the kingdom of Panchal (not after her five husbands). She was named Krishnaa for her dark complexion, but this name is used far less frequently.
Why should all of this be a problem? For starters, it is simply not fair to recognise a woman just by her origin; imagine if every female student in America hailing from Nepal were to be known only by the name “Nepali.” That would be a gross injustice to the individuality of each woman. Besides, most of the men who have parallel roles in the myths are given individual names. Ram’s father is not called an Ayodhyan, he is called Dasharath, and the husbands of Madri and Gandhari are not called Hastinapure, they are called with their proper names of Pandu and Dhritarashtra. Gandhari is not given a proper name even though she is as prominent as her brother Shakuni. Even when Madri’s brother had a much smaller role than Madri, he has a proper name, Shalya. These men are never called Madre or Gandhare. Sure, Draupadi’s brother is sometimes called Drupad after his father, but he is more often called Dhristadhyumna, which refers to his daring nature.
Besides the galling discrimination to begin with, it also appears that men can accumulate new names that give them more praise. The original text often refers to the Pandavas by names that reflect their achievements. Yudhishthir is called Dharmaraj, referring to his just ways. Bhim is called Vrikodara, which means wolf-stomached, referring to his voracious appetite. Arjun is called Dhananjaya, meaning he is the winner of wealth. In fact, these newly minted names of men often overtake their original given names. Karna was named Vasusena by his adoptive parents, but soon became famous for giving away the kundals that adorned his Karnas (ears). Ved Vyas is called so because he divided the Vedas into four different parts, and in time it overtook his first name Dwaipayan, which means “born on an island”. Parashuram’s name was changed from Ram because he did great deeds with his Parashu (axe). Krishna was so named because for his dark complexion, but soon his other names like Madhusudan (killer of Madhu), Keshav (killer of Kisi), Hari (one who takes away sins), Govinda (one who takes care of cows) etc became just as famous as his original name.
In contrast, women with multiple names never manage to outstrip the fame of their origins. Sita is known by the various names of Janaki, Vaidehi, Mithila, and many more, most of them referring to her father’s kingdom. Even her given name Sita refers to the furrows created by the plough from which she was born, it does not refer to her virtuous qualities or her deeds.
To be fair, there are many mythological women whose proper names are mentioned. Tara, Mandodari, Damayanti, Savitri, are some of them. There are also a small number of women named for their achievements. But what tips the scale is the overwhelming number of women who are known simply by their lineage, and the few men that fall into this category. The overarching theme is that women are only known for the identity of their country, or at best, their father. Nothing they do after that matters: neither their individuality at birth, nor their achievements thereafter, are worth of recording. Men, on the other hand, are given names that reflect their individual characteristics, and have the opportunity to cement their reputation through new names commemorating their success. (This trend applies only to human females and not goddesses who have their proper names.) I find this trend to be a reflection of the norms of Hindu society where traditionally, women were not allowed to have careers, their only career of home management was not deemed noteworthy, and only male achievements were counted.

Saturday, August 6, 2011

Nepali Scientist Lujendra Ojha spots possible water on Mars by Pradeep Kumar Singh on AUGUST 6, 2011 in NEWS


Lujendra Ojha, 21-year-old space scientist from Kathmandu, Nepal has spotted signs of possible saltwater flows on Mars. NASA, in its press conference held yesterday (August 4, 2011) confirmed the possibility of liquid essential for life existence on Mars.
Nepali Scientist Lujendra Ojha Nepali Scientist Lujendra Ojha spots possible water on Mars
Ojha has co-authored study in the journal Science suggesting that there is liquid water during warmer seasons on Mars. Mars discovery was an outcome of an independent project he was doing with professor Alfred McEwen, lead author of the new study published in Science.
Washington Post, that talks about the dark finger like streaks appearing on surface of mars (that suggests evidence of salty water on Mars), puts Ojha in context that as
“The dark streaks were initially noticed by a student at the school in images sent back by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The pixelated images were taken as far back as 2007, but with so much data coming in from space missions, they had remained unstudied. McEwan suggested that the student — geophysics junior Lujendra Ojha — examine over time the locations with streaks, and Ojha found that the streaks changed dramatically by season.”
In a context on how an undergrad spotted possible water on Mars, CNN says “Using a computer algorithm to examine images taken in the same crater as the gullies Dundas had examined, Ojha removed visual distortions, such as shadows, from images of a crater taken at different points in time. With that technique, he compared the images to identify the changes over time. That’s how Ojha noticed irregular features in the crater that weren’t related to the gullies.”
Space scientists have searched for signs of life on mars for decades and have repeatedly come up with evidences suggesting so. This happens to be an exciting discovery and hopefully open doors to start planning missions to look for signs of life on Mars.

About Lujendra Ojha

Nepali student Lujendra Ojha is an Undergraduate Intern at Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at University of Arizona in Tucson (AZ 85721), United States. Ojha is 21 years old boy, originally from Mhepi, kathamndu Nepal. He has moved to U.S at the age of 15 and did his high school from there. He lives in Tucson, Arizona U.S.A. He is now undergraduate student at University of Arizona studying Geophysics and during his independent study he discovered possibility of liquid formation in Mars. He is Planning to graduate soon and wants to do further study in Planetary science. He can be reached via Email: luju at email.arizona.edu
Sad thing is that the news of this young achiever hasn’t profoundly made it to media in Nepal and there are Indian news agencies such as Indian express who have already claimed Lujendra Ojha as Indian-origin scientist. Lujendra Ojha has been mentioned in thousands of news channels and websites including msnbcfox newsdiscovery newsWashington post, LA times, Science magazines etc… following the groundbreaking discovery. Shame on Nepali Media!!
Special request: Please promote this news as much as you ca